Learn Daily used Unix Command

Access Control
exit – terminate a shell (see “man sh” or “man csh”)
logout – sign off; end session (C shell and bash shell only;)
passwd – change login password
rlogin – log in remotely to another UNIX system
ssh – secure shell
slogin – secure version of rlogin
yppasswd – change login password in yellow pages

Communicationsmail – send and receive mail
mesg – permit or deny terminal messages and talk requests
pine – send and receive mail
talk – talk to another logged-in user
write – write to another logged-in user

Programming Tools
as – assembler, specific to each machine architecture
awk – pattern scanning and processing language
bc – online calculator
cc – C compiler
csh – C shell command interpreter
dbx – source-level debugging program
f77 – Fortran compiler
gdb – GNU Project debugger
gprof – display profile of called routines
kill – kill a process
ld – the UNIX loader
lex – generate lexical analysis programs
lint – check C source code
make – maintain large programs
maple – symbolic mathematics program
math – symbolic mathematics program
nice – run a command at low priority (see “man nice” or “man csh”)
nohup – run a command immune to hangups
pc – Pascal compiler (xlp on ADS)
perl – Popular script interpreter
prof – display profile data
python – Python programming language
sh – Bourne shell command interpreter
yacc – generate input parsing programs
xcalc – graphical calulator under x

       Documentation apropos – locate commands by keyword lookup
find – locate file (i.e. find . -name *.tex -print)
info – start the info explorer program
man – find manual information about commands
whatis – describe what a command is
whereis – locate source, binary, or man page for a program

       Editorsemacs – screen-oriented text editor
pico – screen-oriented text editor (renamed called nano)
sed – stream-oriented text editor
vi – full-screen text editor
vim – full-screen text editor (“vi-improved”)

File and Directory Management
cd – change working directory
chmod – change the protection of a file or directory
chown – change owner (or group) of a file or directory
chgrp – change group of a file or directory
cmp – compare two files
comm – select/reject lines common to two sorted files
cp – copy files
crypt – encrypt/decrypt files (CCWF only)
diff – compare the contents of two ASCII files
file – determine file type
grep – search a file for a pattern
gzip – compress or expand files
ln – make a link to a file
ls – list the contents of a directory
lsof – list of open files   
mkdir – create a directory
mv – move or rename files and directories
pwd – show the full pathname of your working directory
quota – display disk usage and limits
rm – delete (remove) files
rmdir – delete (remove) directories
stat – status of file (i.e. last access)
sync – flush filesystem buffers  
sort – sort or merge files
tar – create or extract archives
tee – copy input to standard output and other files
tr – translate characters
umask – change default file protections
uncompress – restore compressed file
uniq – report (or delete) repeated lines in a file
wc – count lines, words, and characters in a file

File Display and Printing
cat – show the contents of a file; catenate files
fold – fold long lines to fit output device
head – show first few lines of a file
lpq – examine the printer spooling queue
lpr – print a file
lprm – remove jobs from the printer spooling queue
more – display a file, one screen at a time
less – like more with more features
page – like “more”, but prints screens top to bottom
pr – paginate a file for printing
tail – show the last part of a file
zcat – display a compressed file
xv – show print, manipulate images
gv – show ps and pdf files
xpdf = shopw pdf files (use gv)

File Transfer
ftp – transfer files between network hosts
rsync –  fast and flexible sync between computers
scp – secure version of rcp

Others
alias – define synonym commands
chquota – change disk quota on ACITS UNIX systems
chsh – change default login shell
clear – clear terminal screen
echo – echo arguments
pbm – portable bitmap manipulation programs
popd – pop the directory stack (C shell only)
pushd – push directory on stack (C shell only)
script – make typescript of terminal session
setenv – set an environment variable (C shell only)
stty – set terminal options

Networks
netstat – show network status
rsh – run shell or command on another UNIX system
ssh – secure-shell version of rsh

Process Control
bg – put suspended process into background
fg – bring process into foreground
jobs – list processes
^y – suspend process at next input request
^z – suspend current process

Status Information
clock – determine processor time
date – show date and time
df – summarize free disk space
du – summarize disk space used
env – display environment
finger – look up user information
history – list previously issued commands
last – indicate last login of users
lpq – examine spool queue
manpath – show search path for man pages
printenv – print out environment
ps – show process status
pwd – print full pathname of working directory
set – set shell variables (C shell, bash, or ksh)
spend – lists year-to-date ACITS UNIX charges
stty – set terminal options
time – timing programs
top – list  top  cpu processes
uptime – show system load, how long system has been up
w – show who is on system, what command each job is executing
who – show who is logged onto the system
whois – Internet user name directory service
whoami – who owns the shell

Image Processing
gimp – photoshop type image processing program
xfig – drawing program
xv – image viewer
xvscan – scan picture
xpaint – paint program
kpaint – kde paint program

Sound
mplayer – mpg player
realplay – realaudio player
timidity – midi to wav converter and player
xmms – mp3 player

Text Processing
abiword – open source word processor
addbib – create or extend bibliographic database
col – filter reverse line feeds
diction – identify wordy sentences
diffmk – mark differences between files
dvips – convert TeX DVI files into PostScript
explain – explain phrases found by diction program
grap – pic preprocessor for drawing graphs
hyphen – find hyphenated words
ispell – check spelling interactively
latex – format text in LaTeX (based on TeX)
pdfelatex – latex with pdf output
latex2html – Latex to html
lookbib – find bibliography references
macref – make cross-reference listing of nroff/troff macro files
ndx – create a subject-page index for a document
neqn – format mathematics with nroff
nroff – format text for simple display
pic – make simple pictures for troff input
psdit – filter troff output for Apple LaserWriter
ptx – make permuted index (not on CCWF)
refer – insert references from bibliographic databases
roffbib – run off bibliographic database
sortbib – sort bibliographic database
spell – find spelling errors
ispell – interactive spell checker
style – analyze surface characteristics of a document
tbl – format tables for nroff/troff
tex – format text
tpic – convert pic source files into TeX commands
wget –  grab webpage

X windows     
grabmode – info on screen: i.e. “1152×864”  51.213kHz/56.59Hz
import – grab window (i.e. import ppm:- >out.ppm)
xdpyinfo –  number of colors
xkill – kill xwindow
xlock – lock screen
xterm – xterminal
xwininfo – information on open window

Web
html2ps – html to ps
latex2html – latex to html translator
lynx – text based webbrowser
netscape – webbrowser
sitecopy – sitecopy is for easily maintaining remote web sites.
weblint – html sytax and style checker

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